Autodesk, Inc., a New York-based software developer, is credited with creating the first true “commercial” CAD software that is not tied to a single manufacturer’s hardware platform. The first versions of AutoCAD, introduced in 1984, were built specifically for the time when Microsoft Windows was becoming the industry standard and most users were using DOS for their computers. However, starting with the release of AutoCAD 3D Studio, the company has continued to expand the platform with a Windows-based platform, allowing the system to run on a variety of hardware platforms. AutoCAD software is available for a wide variety of mainframe, mid-range, and desktop computer platforms.
To achieve market share, AutoCAD software needs to prove itself to CAD users who have never used a CAD system. It offers many of the same features of other CAD programs that are familiar to commercial users, with the most recognizable features being a “point-and-click” interface and a task-oriented, 2D/3D drafting system. Autodesk began to focus on application software (not design software) in the early 1990s when it bought Magenta Design System software and its parent company, Symbol Technologies Inc., and then merged the two businesses. This move was designed to help Autodesk develop products in market sectors such as construction, product design, and architecture.
When AutoCAD was released in 1982, it was the first CAD application available for the IBM PC. In contrast, the earliest software available for the Apple Macintosh computer did not include CAD software. The user interface for AutoCAD is similar to other DOS-based CAD programs; it is point-and-click with no training needed to complete a drawing. Most CAD professionals agree that the user interface in AutoCAD is superior to that of competing CAD programs. Early computers had to rely on precise measurements and manual tracing, but the new software makes the process of creating designs much simpler.
AutoCAD is the market leader in CAD software, accounting for 85 percent of the market in 2016. Other competing programs that are still in use include Microstation (discontinued) by Micrografx, SOLIDWORKS (discontinued), and Starcad (discontinued). AutoCAD is used extensively in design and drafting work throughout most industries.
In August 2016, Autodesk released AutoCAD 2016, the first release of AutoCAD
AutoCAD is composed of four major releases, which are each composed of a series of quarterly releases, with releases usually available every nine months.
Major releases of AutoCAD are named with one digit and letter, for instance, r2010, r11, r12.
Quarterly releases of AutoCAD are named with two digits and letters, for instance, 13.0, 14.0 and 15.0.
Year releases of AutoCAD are named with two digits, two letters and two numbers, for instance, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018.
Sequential releases of AutoCAD are named with a two-digit and letter, followed by one letter, for instance, r11, r12, r13 and r14.
In the late 1980s, AutoCAD first appeared in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Japan.
In the 1990s, AutoCAD 1.0 was introduced in 1990 as the first of many major improvements in a 16-year history of AutoCAD releases. By 1999, it was the most widely used CAD system in the world.
In the 2000s, AutoCAD 2.0 was introduced in the early 2000s. The most noticeable change of AutoCAD 2.0 was its change of the user interface from Windows to Mac OS X. It was released at the same time as Mac OS X 10.1. By 2001, it was the most widely used CAD system in the world.
In the 2010s, AutoCAD 3D 2010 was introduced, which was the first major change in AutoCAD’s user interface since AutoCAD 2.0. It was released at the same time as Windows 8.
Features of AutoCAD are marked using tags.
List of cross-platform 3D graphics software
Comparison of CAD editors for mechanical design
Comparison of CAD editors
Comparison of free CAD software
Comparison of CAx applications
Category:3D computer graphics software
Category:CAD file formats
Category:Computer-aided design software
Category:Computer-aided design software for Windows
Interpretation of the transrenal absorption of nitrogen in relation to bile flow.
The transrenal extraction of total nitrogen (N) and the extraction of filtered N (N(f)) were determined in anaesthetised rabbits by infusion of 15N-labelled urea. N(f) was defined as the isotope content of N in arterial plasma after correction for the volume of bile produced during 60 min of bile duct ligation. The N(f) output was separated into two components: N(f) associated with ureteric secretion and N(f) associated with intestinal secretion of water. The fraction of total N(f) extracted at the nephron ends was 0.95 +/- 0.04. Renal reabsorption of N(f) associated with bile was 90% and was identical to the fraction of filtered N(f) that leaves the nephron by urinary excretion of bile salts. These results demonstrate that the entire fraction of N(f) filtered by the kidney is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. During 60 min of bile duct ligation, N(f) associated with ureteric secretion increased from 6 to 31%. Assuming no change in total N extraction, this increase in N(f) associated with ureteric secretion indicates that the proportion of filtered N secreted by the ureter is 13.5 +/- 0.3%. It is concluded that a major fraction of ureteric secretion is reabsorbed along the proximal tubule.Dual effect of non-haem iron on hydrogenase activity in Clostridium thermocellum.
Nocardia autotrophica grown in the presence of non-haem iron has been shown to reduce hydrogen gas and produce hydrogenase which catalyses the hydrogen evolution reaction. In Clostridium thermocellum, hydrogenase is inducible in anaerobic glucose-mineral medium in the presence of hydrogen gas but is absent in anaerobic cells grown in the absence of hydrogen gas. Experiments were designed to test the effect of non-haem iron on the inducible hydrogenase activity of C. thermocellum grown in anaerobic glucose-mineral medium. Non-haem iron caused a decrease in hydrogenase activity in cells grown under conditions of hydrogen gas production. Reduction in enzyme activity was associated with the loss of hydrogenase from the soluble fraction of cells. This
Add temporary annotative components to view-only models to inspect geometry on-the-fly. (video: 1:43 min.)
Create 3D models using advanced rendering and shading techniques. (video: 1:25 min.)
Manage your project from multiple locations using mobile apps on iOS and Android. (video: 3:24 min.)
Let others collaborate on your model with real-time peer review. Work on a project together using the web app or the mobile app. (video: 1:38 min.)
Add security to your digital designs using color ink analysis. Add watermark text, in various fonts, sizes, and colors, to your drawings and import designs directly from Adobe InDesign. (video: 1:58 min.)
Share large files on the cloud with direct access to collaborators. (video: 3:01 min.)
Work smarter with a new search and navigation experience, using search history and the recent products feature. (video: 3:33 min.)
New features in AutoCAD 2023 work together to deliver a more powerful and intuitive experience.
Here are some of the highlights in AutoCAD 2023:
Surface and surface boundary refinement, the process of establishing topology, is a critical step in many modeling tasks. It helps to precisely define the shape and the topology of geometry. Subsurface refinement uses the same powerful technology as other refinements, like creasing and reshaping, but only for surfaces. The difference is that it can also refine a subsurface.
First, users select the subsurface boundary points to refine. These points are marked and colored so that users know where they belong. Then, use the Surface Refinement tool to define the shapes and boundaries of the refined area, a process known as topology refinement. If you think of topology refinement like a draft, you can think of a subsurface as the detailed version of the original draft. For instance, you could use a topology refinement to define the inlets, outlets, nooks and crannies, and other small features of a larger building or a machine.
You can use subsurface refinement to refine objects such as:
To check out the new Subsurface Refinement tool, watch this video.
Superior image quality
Let your images do the talking. Artwork can be
Compatible with all systems. Only the textures required for using in a 1024×768 resolution.
Compatible with all systems.